1. Lakshmeesha (ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮೀಶ)
  2. lakSmISa
  3. 16th century (1550 A.D.)
  4. Devanuru (dEvanUru) in Chikkamagalur district. (Surapura in Gulbarga district??)
  5. Brahmana (Srivaishnava?)
  6. None
  7. Karnata Kavichutavana Chaitra 2. Upamaa Lola
  8. Lakshmeesha held a unique position among the medieval poets of Kannada particularly in the pre colonial era when literature had alternative means of propagation other than writing and pedagogy. Many epics were perennial favorites among the illiterate communities also because of oral propagation and Gamaka tradition. Of course different regions of Karnataka had affinities towards different works because of their religious loyalties. However, the percolation of the value system preached by the upper echelons of the society did not meet with stiff resistance and consequently works such as ‘Kumaravyasa Bharata’ and ‘Jaimini Bharata’ were quite popular. Jaimini Bharata is essentially episodic in nature and it was easy to recite it in smaller chunks. The stories of Chandrahasa, Chandi and Uddhalaka, Seethavanavasa and Sudhnvana kalaga could be treated as independent works. Lakshmeesha who lived after the spread of Bhakti movement across the country had the twin advantages of writing about battles and valor and culminating in the supremacy of Bhakti. For him, loyalty to Krishna and a subjugation of the self was of paramount importance. Actually this attitude contains elements of ‘Prapatti’ a concept from ‘Srivaishnnava’ philosophy which advocates total surrender. Many heroes portrayed by Lakshmeesha such as Hamsadhvaja, Sudhanva and Youvanashva were stronger than Arjuna but they did not mind sacrificing their lives in order to obtain Krishna’s blessings. Lakshmeesha finds occasions to introduce elements of amour and humour in order to cater to the multiple tastes of his audience. Lakshmeesha had to contend with great practitioners of ‘Shatpadi’ meter such as Raghavanka, Kumaravyasa and Chamarasa. He could not take resort to the story of Mahabharata or Ramayana because the possibilities of those epics were exhausted at least at that point of time. Lakshmeesha chooses the events that took place after the great Mahabharata war. The element of relative merits was marginalised because this facet of the original epic was not chosen by Pampa and Kumaravyasa. Of course Lakshmeesha cannot compare with other two as far as poetic vision and structural beauty are concerned. Lakshmeesha has an eye for nature and describes it in detail. Added to that he has the ability of correlating nature with human emotions. This is evident in the manner in which flora and fauna of the forest empathize with Chandrahasa in his agony. This attitude of treating nature and human beings as integral parts of a continuum is noteworthy. The stylistic priorities of this poet were geared towards melody rather than meaning. He could lend an aura of music to his poetry which was unique in those days. The fact that he could do it with a language which was a pleasing mixture of Sanskrit and Kannada vouches for his poetic genius. Thus Lakshmeesha has a pre eminent position in the galaxy of Kannada poets
  9. Jaimini Bharata (jaimini BArata)
  10. References: 1. ‘Kavi Lakshmeesha’, 1933, Kannada Sangha, Chikkamagalur.

2. ‘Lakshmeesha’, 1955, (2nd Print) N.Anantarangachar, Prasaranga, Mysore University , Mysore .

3. ‘Kavi Lakshmeeshana Kavyalankara Vaihava’, R.N.Malagi, 1960

4. ‘Kavyavihara’, Kuvempu, Mysore

5. ‘Sahityada Virat Svaropa’, D.R.Bendre, Samaja Pustakalaya, Dharawada.

6. Lakshmeeshana Jaimini Bharata-ondu Adhyayana, Vamana D. Bendre.

7. Lakshmeesha Kannada Kavi Kavya Parampare, edited by .Seetharamaiah, IBH Prakashana, Bangalore

11. Links:

12. Translations:



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