1. ಕರ್ಣಾಟ ಭಾರತಕಥಾಮಂಜರಿ, ಕುಮಾರವ್ಯಾಸ ಭಾರತ(Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari, Kumaravyasa Bharata)
  2. karNATa BArata kthAmanjari, kumAravyAs BArata
  3. Mahabharata recreated by Kumaravyasa
  4. Kumaravyasa, (kumAravyAsa) also known as Gadugina Naranappa (gadugina nAraNappa)
  5. 1430 A.D. (Approximately) The estimates have oscillated between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries.
  6. Gadugu which is now a district head quarters.
  7. Smartha Brahmana, (Bhagavata tradition?) He was a staunch devotee of the lord Veeranarayana in Gadugu.
  8. None
  9. ‘Rupaka Samrajya Chakravarthi’
  10. Poetry
  11. Bhamini Shatpadi
  12. Palm leaf and paper manuscripts. The publication history of Kumaravyasa Bharata is long and complicated. It was published for the first time in the 19th century and the new editions have come out through the twentieth century. This work is published in smaller modules of ‘Parva’s and the entire work also is edited and published several times. Some of them are popular editions, with hardly any pretensions to textual criticism. It is not even possible to find the name of the editor for many bazar editions. Once in a while a manuscript is found written in the Telugu script.
  13. 1865 (An earlier stone etched version containing only the first four parvas was published in 1851, printed at the German Mission Press, Mangalore)
  14. Editor not known.
  15. ‘Vicharadarpana Mudraksharashaale’, Bangalore . (In Telugu script)
  16. 1. Siddhanthi Subrahmanyasahastry and sa. Tiruvenkatacharya, 1877, ‘Sarasvathiinilaya Mudraksharashaale’, Madras .

2. 1888, Vageeshvara Mudraksharashaale, Bangalore

3. ‘Kannada Mahabharata Dashaparva’ Edited by Nanjanagudu Srikantashastry, 1909, Vanivilasa Book Depot, Mysore .

4. ‘Kannada Mahabharata Dashaparva’, Edited by Vajapeyam Govindaiah, 1916.

5. Dasha Parva’ Edited by Bharathi Sampangiramaiah, ‘Sarasvathi Ratnakara Book Depot’, Bangalore .

6. ‘Srimanmahabharata Dashaparvavu’, 1936, Chikkapete Book Depot, Bangalore .

7. ‘Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari’, Edited by Kuvempu and Masti Venkatesha Iyyengar, 1958, Department of Kannada and Culture, Government of Mysore , Bangalore .

(This edition has made use of an ancient palm leaf manuscript copied as early as 1554)

8. Kumaravyasa Bharata Sangraha’, an abridged edition prepared by T.S.Shama Rao, 1972, Sahitya Academy , New Delhi .

9. ‘Kumaravyasa Bharata Sangraha’, 1990, B.M.Sri. Pratishatana, Bangalore

10. ‘Kumaravyasa Bharata’, Edited by A.V.Prasanna, 2007, Kannada University , Hampi.

11. ‘Kumaravyasa Bharata’ Edited by A.R.Sethurama Rao, 2008, Kamadhenu Prakashana, Bangalore .

12. Each Parva of this monumental work is edited and published by various scholars and institutions. A special mention must be made of the editions published by the Oriental research Institute, Mysore . Scholars such as V.Shyamachar, S.N.Krishna Jois, D.L.Narasimhachar, D.Srinivasachar, M.S.Basavalingaiah and N.Anantharangachar were involved in this stupendous task. Abridged versions and text book editions are available aplenty. This work continues to be perennial favorite with editors and readers even to this day.

17. ‘Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari’ or ‘Kumaravysa Bharata’ to use its more popular name is inarguably one of the all time classics of Kannada literature. Kumaravyasa along with Pampa and the Shivasharanas of the twelfth century has carved a niche for himself not only in Karnataka but also in the pan Indian context. This work is a transformation of original Sanskrit epic to suit the sensibilities of medieval Karnataka in the temporal context of the fifteenth century and in the pan Indian context of the Bhakti movement. Krishnbhakti is the moving force behind this work even though it is second to none in celebrating the valour of heroes such as Bheema, Arjuna, Duryodhana and Karna. Kumaravyasa takes a work that was composed in the northern part of the country, millenniums ago and transposes the scenario to Karnataka of his times. This metamorphosis is a consequence of the stylistic universe put in to use by the poet. He chooses the spoken variety of the language and lends it literary glamour without sacrificing its rustic force. He has succeeded eminently in capturing the very core of the language.

‘Kuamaravyasa Bharata’ selects only the first ten sections (Parva) of the original epic. Hence it starts with the Adiparva and concludes with the Gadaparva. It contains 152 sub divisions (Sandhi) consisting of approximately 8200 poems making allowances for interpolations. All of them are composed in the ‘Bhamini Shatpadi’ meter which lends itself admirably to verbal jugglery of which the poet is fond of. He uses Kannada which was suffused with words borrowed from Marathi, and does not hesitate to use the dialectical vocabulary whenever the occasion demands it.

This work is essentially subjective and the poet is deeply involved with whatever is happening in the story. He brings down the mythological characters to the level of contemporary human beings and this act results in a process of familiarization. Characters such as Bheema, Draupadi, Arjuna, Krishna, Dharmaraya, Karna and Duryodhana are etched in the memory of Kannada speaking community. Even minor characters such as Uttarakumara, Abhimanyu and Bakasura leave an indelible mark. This depiction of characters is neither in a high mimetic mode nor is it composed in a low mimetic mode. This transformation of the story, characters and the style is responsible for the astounding success of ‘Kumaravyasa Bharata’. The characters are not static and the processes of life mature them beyond belief.

The poet is a past master in handling human emotions and his shifts from one emotion to another are made gradually. ‘Kumaravyasa Bharata’ like many of its peers is an episodic in nature and the story of the Pandava princes binds them together consistently. The world view presented in this work does not really go beyond the prescriptions of traditional Hinduism. But the poet transcends these limitations and becomes endearing because of his human commitments.


18. References:

1. ‘Kumaravyasaprashasti’, 1940, Mysuuru Vishvavidyalaya Sangha, Mysore .

2. ‘Karnana muru chitragalu’, Sham.Ba. Joshi, 1947.

3. ‘Kumaravyasa’, S.V.Ranganna, 1949 (3rd Print) Prasaranaga, Mysore University , Mysore .

4. ‘Kumarvysavani’, S.V.Ranganna, 1949, Prasaranga, Mysore University , Mysore .

5. ‘Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari’, Ed. by Kuvempu-Masti, (Torana Nandi-Introduction)

6. ‘Kumaravyasa’, Keertinatha Kurtakoti, 1975(?), Sahitya Academy , New Delhi .

7. ‘Kumaravyasa’- Samskritika Mukhamukhi, edited by Rahamath Tarikere, Kannada University , Hampi.

8. ‘Kumaravyasa’ – Kavi Kavya Parampare, edited by V.Seetharamaiah, 1973,

I.B.H.Prakashana, Bangalore .

9. Gadugina Bharata’-Ondu Samskritika Adhyayana, De.Javaregouda, 1978, Dharawada.

10. ‘Kumaravyasa’ Edited by Shamasundara Bidarakundi, Karnataka Sahitya Academy, Bangalore .

11. ‘Mahabharata Sameekshe’, N.Subrahmanyam, 1973, Mysore .

12. Linguistic Analysis of Kumaravyasa Bharatha, S Ōkārappa, 1994, Prasārānga, University of Mysore, Mysore .

13. Maha Bharata and Variations, Perundevanar and Pampa : A Comparative Study KV Acharya - 1981 - Vyasaraja Publications

14. ‘Bharata Kathamanjari’, by A.R. Mitra, Published in Masterpieces of Indian Literature’, Ed. K.M.George, Pub. : National Book Trust, Kannada Editor: G.S.Shivarudrappa


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