1.      Harihara (ಹರಿಹರ)

2.      harihara

3.      12th and 13th centuries (1150 A.D.-1250 A.D.) (Approx.)

4.      Hampi, Bellary District and Dwarasamudra, Hasana District.

5.      Veerashaiva (Shaiva Brahmana?)

6.      Narasimha Ballala (Hoysala king) for a few years

7.      ragaLeya kavi

1.      Harihara is one of the most important poets of Kannada for more than one reason. He is perhaps the first Kannada poet who chose a Tamil work as a source instead of more favoured Sanskrit and Prakrit works. ‘Periyapurana’ a 11th century work by SEkkiZAar provided brief life sketches of the shaiva saints (Nayanaars) of Chola desha. {( Periya Puranam (The great purana or epic), also known as “Tiruttontarpuranam (the purana of the holy devotees) is a Tamil poetic account depicting the legendary lives of the sixty Nayanars, the canonical poets of Tamil Shaivism. It was compiled during the twelfth century by Sekkizhar. It provides evidence of trade with West Asia. – from Wikipedia} The fact that he could obtain the Tamil work in the immediate aftermath of its publication, that in too in central Karnataka is noteworthy. Consequent of this choice the locale, the details and the narrative style undergo a sea change and become and nearer to the native Dravidian life style. This is particualarly true of ‘puratanara ragalegalu’. On the contrary other ragales hold a mirror to the medeival Karnataka and the details are keenly observed and sensitively portrayed. Harihara performs the act of bidding adieu to old Kannada and ‘Champu style’ in ‘Girijakalyana’. He uses medeiva Kannada or Nadugannada to great effect in all his ragales. The style is highly evocative and the poet eschews Sanskrit words as far as possible. His daring in changing the style and subject matter is to be admired even though one has to concede that he was greatly influenced by the Vachana literature of Shivasharanas. The life of the common man holds the centre stage for the the first time in Kannada literature in these works. A potter, an agriculturist, a hunter, a cobbler, a washerman and a fisherman are the protagonists of some of his celebrated ragales. The lord Shiva is accesible to all of them without the mediation of the priest. This is a huge step forward which unfortunately was not followed by his successors.

Another major acheivement of Harihara was his judicious combination of realistic portrayal of his characters and a desire to deify them. His major works such as “Basavarajadevara Ragale’ and ‘Nambiyannana Ragale’ have managed this task in an admirable manner. He could manage this much better than his successors who indulged in out and out deification.` Harihara could handle both prose and poetry with equal degree of facility. He uses these two modes in alternate chapters in his works on Basavanna and Nambiyanna. Thus Harihara occupies an important place in the galaxy of Kannada poets.

8.      Girijakalyana Mahaprabandham 2. Pampa Shataka 3. Raksha Shataka 4. Mudigeya Ashtaka 5. More than sixty compositions written in the metrical form known as ‘RagaLe’

giving a biographical account of the ancient shaiva saints of Tamilnadu (Chola Desha) and the twelfth century shivasharanas of Karnataka. The authorship of some ragales attributed to Harihara are disputed. Some of the more important ragales are as follows:

a.      Ragales about the ancient saints (purAtanara ragaLegaLu): 1. Tiru Neelakantha 2. Ileyandagudi Mara 3. Kannappadevaru 4. Rudrspashupathi 5. Karikalamme 6. Nambiyanna 7.Koluru Kodagusu 8. Madara Chennayya

b.      Ragales about the Shivasharanas of Karnataka: 1. Basavaraja Devaru 2. Prabhudevaru 3. Udutadiya Mahadeviyaru 4. Havinahalu Kallidevaru 5. Revanasiddeshvara Devaru

c.      Ragales about Shaivas and Shivakavis: 1 Ohila 2. Kumbara Gundayya 3. Maluhana 4. Adayya 5. Shankara Dasimayya.

d.      Ragales about general themes : 1. Pushpa ragale 2. Lingarchane ragale 3. Hampeyarasana ragale 4. Vibhuti ragale 5. Rudrakshi ragale 6. Jaya ragale 7. Bhrungiya ragale

9.      Reference and Criticism: 1. ‘Hampiya Harihara’, 1939, D.L.Narasimhachar, Prasaranga, Mysore University , Mysore . 1. ‘Hariharadeva’ Ed. K.G.Kundanagar, 1932, Karnataka Sangha, Rajarama College , Kolhapur , Maharashtra. 2. ‘Hariharadeva’ Ed. V.Seetharamaiah, Kavi Kavya Paramapre, I.B.H. Prakashana, Bangalore . 3. ‘Rasikachakri Hariharadeva’ Ed. Dr B.C.Javali and Principal Shantharasa, 1979, Jagadguru Kotturuswami Matha, Hosapete, Bellary district. 4. Harihara – Samskritika Mukhamukhi, Ed. Shivananda Virakthamatha, Kannada University , Hampi. 5. ‘Madara Channaiahna Ragale’ by Shivarudrappa G.S., Masterpieces of Indian Literature, Ed. K.M.George, Pub. : National Book Trust, Kannada Editor: G.S.Shivarudrappa 6. Hampeya Harihara (Medlieval Kannada sanit-poet) by H. Deveerappa, 1987, Sahitya Academy , New Delhi .


10 Translations : 1. Harihara by Narasimhamurthy K. in ‘Medeival Kannada Literature’, 2000 A.D. Ed. T.R.S.Sharma, Sahitya Academy, New Delhi



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