Chalukyas of Kalyani (kalyANiya cAlukyaru) (ಕಲ್ಯಾಣಿಯ
ಚಾಳುಕ್ಯರು) constitute the last phase of
the celebrated dynasty. The kings of this segment established themselves after the
fading away of the Rashtrakutas and they had their capital in Kalyana (kalyANa)
which is now known as
Basavakalyana. The Chalukya dynasty
which was dormant for quite some time after the cessation of the Badami Chalukyas
and holding its own in small pockets of power reinstated itself when Karka-2 (Kakka)
the rashtrakUTa king was defeated by Tailapa-2 in 973 A.D. He established himself
in Manyakheta (Malkhed) the traditional capital of Rashtrakootas. However some historians
have claimed that Kalyani Chalukyas were not related to the
Badami Chaliukyas and that, they belonged to a different lineage. A list
of kings who ruled in these small provinces is given by Ranna the famous Kannada
poet in his
‘Gadayuddha’. Kalyani Chalukyas ruled a powerful empire for almost two centuries
till they were subjugated by the kaLacuri dynasty.
A list of important kings belonging to this dynasty is provided here and that is followed by a brief account of their political history.
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>Tailapa-2 973-997 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>Satyashraya Iriva Bedanga 997-1008 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>3. <![endif]>Vikramaditya-5 1008-1015 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>4. <![endif]>Jayasimha-2 1015-1044 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>5. <![endif]>Someshvara 1044-1068 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>6. <![endif]>Someshvara-2 1068-1076 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>7. <![endif]>Vikramaditya-6 1076-1127 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>8. <![endif]>Someshvara-3 1127-1139 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>9. <![endif]>Jagadekamalla-2 1139-1149 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>10. <![endif]>Tailapa-3 1149-1162 A.D.
<![if !supportLists]>11. <![endif]>Someshvara-4 1182-1189 A.D.
Kalyani Chalukyas were in constant strife with Chola kings almost throughout their
existence. Tailapa-2 had to contend with Gangas, Nolambas and Cholas. Tailapa defeated
Rajaraja Chola and his son Satyashraya fought with Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra
Chola. Satyashraya moved towards the north after Rajendra Chola usurped GangavaaDi
and NoLambavaaDi. His victories over shilAhAra aparAjita and the kings of
The bulk of information that we have about the civic life and the administrative
patterns of this period is gleaned from inscriptions. Kalayani Chalukya Empire was
a huge kingdom stretching from Kaveri to Narmada River. It consisted of many parts
of Karnataka, Andhrapradesh and Maharashtra. The state was divided in to a number
of ‘mandalas with appropriate subdivisions. Names like banavaasi-12000, noLambavaaDi-
32000, and gangavaaDi-96000 indicate such divisions. These regions were ruled by
the representatives of the Emperor who enjoyed hereditary powers or were appointed
by the king. Village was the smallest unit and it was looked after by a community
of elders called ‘mahAjana’s and representatives of various trades. ‘gAvunDa’
and ‘karaNa’ were the head official and accountant respectively.
This is deemed to be a period during which the rise of rich people took place. Apparently land ownership was conspicuous by its absence but for a few exceptions where in lands were granted by the kings to Brahmins and warriors. However, they did have many other sources of income. Different professions had their own guilds. The economic condition of the state was very good and people had to pay varieties of taxes. Agriculturists as well as merchants had to bear the brunt of these taxes. The state also collected fees from customs, professional licenses, and judicial fines. Records show horses and salt were taxed as well as commodities (gold, textiles, perfumes) and agricultural produce (black pepper, paddy, spices, betel leaves, palm leaves, coconuts and sugar) Taxes were to be paid even when weddings took place in a given family. Even drawing a sword in a personal feud was considered a crime and it was heavily penalized. Many temples were also educational institutions. Brahmins held the upper hand in the system and rose to high places.
Arts were patronized by the state and the people in large proportions. Some of the
kings like Someshvara-3 and Jagadeka Malla were writers on their own merit. “Manasollasa’ or ‘Abhilashitartha
by king Somesvara III (1129) was a Sanskrit work intended
for all sections of society. This is an example of an early encyclopedia in Sanskrit
covering many subjects including medicine, magic, veterinary science, valuing of
precious stones and pearls, fortifications, painting, music, games, amusements etc.”
‘Jagadekamalla has written a book named ‘Sangeeta Chuudaamani’ on music. Bilhana,
(‘Vikramankadevacharita’) Vijnaneshvara,(‘Mitaaksharaa’) Dayapala (Rupasiddhi) and
Vadiraja (‘Yashodharacharita’) are some of
the important writers who wrote in Sanskrit during the regime of Kalyani Chalukyas.
Ranna, Nagavarma, Nagavarma-2, Durgasimha, Nagachandra and Nayasena are the major
Kannada poets who flourished during this period.
Architecure and sculpture during this period was not confined to any particular region as was the case with Badami Chalukyas. It was spread all over Karnataka and beyond. Kalyani Chalukyas imbibed many elements from the Badami style. However they did make a few innovations. Independent buildings were preferred to earlier cave temples. Sand stone was gradually replaced by soap stone.(Chloritic Schist) Star shaped foundations gave way to rectangular structures and the architects had a liking for right angles. With the exception of the Basappa temple of DambaLa, all these temples have rectangular base. These and many more innovations which lead to a distinct style which is often called ‘vEsara’. This style is a combination of the ‘nAgara’ and ‘drAviDa’ styles Mukteshvara temple at Chaudadaanapura, the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi (Gadag district), the Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal (Gadag district), the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatii the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali the Siddhesvara Temple at Haveri (Haveri district), the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri (Dharwad district) and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi (Koppal district) are among the best examples of Kalyani Chalukya architecture. Mahadeva temple in Itagi is called ‘dEvAlaya cakravarti’ (The emperor among temples.) The sculpture of this period is not very distinguished and they show a greater degree of craftsmanship than artistry
number of stone inscriptions were installed during this period as compared
to copper plates. Most of them are in Kannada. Combination of prose and poetry is
preferred. There is a literary flair in many of them. Vikramaditya heralded a new
era called ‘Vikrama Shaka’ as indicated in these epigraphs. The numismatic output
of the Kalyani Chalukyas is quite profuse. ‘GadyANa’ was a gold coin. The name of
the place where it was minted was prefixed to this name. Hence names such as lokki
gadyaaNa, kataka gadyaaNa etc. have come in to vogue. Mints were located at places
such as ‘sUDi’ and ‘lokkigunDi’. Each design
or symbol on the Chalukya coin has been impressed by a separate punch.
Many coins with a punch mark
are found to be made of gold as well as silver. Other coins mentioned in the
inscriptions are paNa, honnu, hAga, kAagiNi,
vIsa, guLike and bELe.
To sum up, the reign of Kalyani Chalukyas represents a very important watershed in the history of Karnataka.
<![if !supportLists]>1. <![endif]>Kannikeswaran, K. "Kalyani Chalukyan temples". TempleNet. firstname.lastname@example.org. http://www.templenet.com/Karnataka/kalyani_chalukya.html.
<![if !supportLists]>2. <![endif]>en.wikipedia.org/wiki/index.html?curid=21448602 (Mahadeva temple, Itagi)
<![if !supportLists]>3. <![endif]> www.hindu.com/.../stories/2002061003760500.htm (An article on Mahadeva temple)
<![if !supportLists]>4. <![endif]>commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Itagi_Mahadev...(Inscription at
Home / Land History and People