Alupa dynasty(ಆಳುಪ ರಾಜವಂಶ)
(ALupa) was one of the most ancient kingdoms of Karnataka, holding
sway over many parts of the coastal region in the state. The dynasty stretches far
behind the period suggested by available details about the monarchs. It is quite
Alupas migrated to the coastal region of Mangalore as early as 300 B.C. and took
control of the coastal land stretching from
This dynasty is divided in to two broad divisions namely ancient Alupas (up to the middle of tenth century and medieval Alupas. (Up to the end of fifteenth century) Aluvarasa is the first Alupa king about whom inscriptional evidences are available. (650-663 A.D.) The important monarchs who succeeded him are Chitravahana-1, Aluvarasa 2, Chitravahana-2, Ranasagara, Pruthveesagara, (Aluvarasa-3) Maramma, (Aluvarasa-4) Vimaladitya and Dattalupa. The rule of Aluvarasa-1 and Chitravahana-1 was the golden period of Aluva dynasty and they controlled Mangalapura, (Mangalore) Pombucha,(Humacha) and Kadamaba Mandala and they were responsible for stalling the Pandyas of Madurai at Mangalapura.(Mangalore) However historical evidences about all these happenings are scant.
The period of medieval Alupas is better documented
and it extends from Kundavarma (950 ľ 980 A.D.) up to Kulashekhara-3 and Veerapandya-2
(1390-1400 A.D.) Their rule was essentially confined to Tulu Nadu and Mangalapura
and Barahakanyapura (Barakur) were their capitals. Bhujabala Alupendra, (Kavi Alupendra)
Kulashekhara-1, (Jakaladeviĺs husband) Balla Mahadevi, Veera Pandya and Kulashekhara-2
were the more prominent ones among these kings. They could retain their power even
though they were in constant strife with Cholas and Hoysalas. They were subservient
to the Vijayanagara dynasty and later they lost their identity to the all powerful
Mogaveeras, Billavas, Nadavas, Jains, Brahmins and Konkanis were the major communities that were present during the rule of Alupas.
Inscriptions, Art and Architecture: Naturally the Alupa dynasty laid the foundations for
the cultural variety of coastal Karnataka.
The inscriptions found during this period are short ones written in Old Kannada or Sanskrit language using old Kannada script. Usually they are not dated and a comparative study reveals that the script was relatively stable. Their shortness prevents them from providing any assistance in re-constructing the political and social history of Tulu Nadu.
BeLmaNNu copper inscription that belongs to the former
half of the eight century happens to be the earliest copper inscription found in
This full-length Kannada copper plate in Old Kannada script (early eighth century
CE) belongs to the Alupa King Aluvarasa II from Belmannu, Karkala Taluk, Udupi District
and displays the double crested fish, the royal emblem of Alupa kings.The inscription found at Vaddarse village in Udupi talluk
is the first full length stone inscription of Alupa dynasty. (7th century)
Out of approximately 200 inscriptions inscribed during this period some are yet
to be deciphered. Some usages are taken from the contemporary dialects and a detailed
study may reveal useful information about the early stages of Kannada language.
Alupas have issued gold coins and circular copper coins
minted at Udupi and Mangalore. They have the royal emblem of double fish on one
side and the wordings ôSri Pandya Dhananjayaĺ on the obverse side. The script on
the coins was either old Kannada or Devanagari.
The architectural styles of the temples in these regions
are usually derived from the Badami Chalukya and Kalyani Chalukya styles. However
as a consequence of long and sustained contact
one can find traces of Pallava and Chola architecture. Consequently there is not
much that could be ascribed to a separate Alupa style. The important temples that
were built during different stages are as follows.
The temple architecture and the idols have definite
associations with a combination of styles and they are made of black granite, slate
stone and light red stones.
Thus Alupas constitute one of the most ancient dynasties
of Karnataka and they played a major role in the political evolution of coastal
1. Inscriptions of the Alupas
3. Copper plate of Aluvarasa-II
4. Alupas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia