PANCHATANTRA-Durgasimha

 

  1. ಪಂಚತಂತ್ರ-ದುರ್ಗಸಿಂಹ
  2. panchatantra
  3. Five Techniques
  4. Durgasimha (durgasimha)
  5. 1031 A.D.
  6. Sayyadi Agrahara in Kisukaadu Naadu
  7. Brahmana
  8. Military General and a diplomat with Jagadeka Malla-1 of Kalyani Chalukya dynasty
  9. ...
  10. Poetry: Champu Kavya
  11. Kanda, Vrutta and Prose
  12. Palm Leaf and paper
  13. 1865 A.D. (?) (2nd Edition)
  14. John Garrett
  15. Mysore Govt. Press, Bangalore
  16.  
             a. Canarese Panchatantra for the use of Schools [Edited by C. Vatsa with English preface], Second edition. pp. xx. 146. Basel Mission Press, Mangalore, 1867. 
             b. Panchhatantra, 1896, Karnataka Kavya-Manjari, S.G. Narasimhahar and M.A.Ramanuja Iyengar, Mysore.
             c. Durgasimhana Panchatantra  Ed. by N.Anantharangachar, 1973, Sharadamandira, Mysore.
             d. Karnataka Panchatantra’, Ed. by C.P.Krishnakumar, 1994, Directorate of Kannada and Culture, Bangalore.
             e. ‘Panchatanra’, (with arendering in prose) Gundmi chandrashekhara Ithala, 1976, Kannada Sahitya Parishath, Bangalore.
             d. ‘Panchatantra’, K.Narasimha Shastry  

17.        ‘Panchatantra’ is a literary work with pan Indian reputation retaining its relevance even today with an unfailing appeal for the younger generation. This is a Kannada version of the Sanskrit original. There are two traditions of the ‘Panchatantra’ in Sanskrit. The first one is the ‘Panchatantra’ by Vishnusharma which is available. The second version is by Vasubhaga Bhatta. Both these versions have sprung from the “Brihatkathe’ by Gunadhya written in Paishacha language. The Sanskrit original of Vasubhaga Bhatta is not found. Durgasimha has taken this version as his original and created his work accordingly making suitable changes. However, this Kannada work has helped in the reconstruction of the Sanskrit work of Vasubhaga Bhatta. The Kannada poet is not even aware of the Vishnusharma tradition. ‘Panchatantra’ contains a number of stories constructed to teach the art of diplomacy and political administration to three princes of the king Amarashakti. The stories are classified in to five sections thus giving the name of the work. The sections are as follows:

 

                  1. bhEda prakaraNa VarNanam, 2. parIkshA vyAvarNanam, 3. vishvAsa prakaraNa varNanam, 4. vanchanA prakaraNa varNanam,  5. mitrakArya prakaraNam                                         

             The work contains 457 poems and 230 shlokas. Surprisingly Durgasimha has   retained the Jaina philosophical tenets and the technical terms in tact inspite of his own religious background. Actually he has attempted some kind of a fusion between Jainism and Brahamnism at a philosophical level. ‘Panchatantra’ makes use of the animal world in order to develop a code of conduct for human beings. The author is amoral and does not really have any compunction in teaching the tricks of the trade to the princes. There is a degree of flexibility in his ethics. Essentially, ‘Panchatantra’ is remarkable for it grasp of human nature. At times it matches the wit of Kautilya and Machiavelli. The stories create a permanent impact on young minds. The characters of the Sanjeevaka the oxen, Pingalaka the lion and Karataka-Damanaka the tricky pair of foxes have lingered in public memory for centuries.                                

      ‘Panchatantra’ is a Champu work. However prose is given a prominent place because the stories are bereft of lyrical content and demand a straight forward narration. However the poet makes effective use poetry for the purposes of description and introduces shlokas whenever moralistic and pithy statements are necessary. Consequently this Champu work has some unique features. The stories are translated many times over making use of simple Kannada. Stories from ‘Panchatantra’ have become an integral part of the school curriculum.

  1. 1.‘Durgasimha’ by Ramegowda, Prasaranga, Mysore University, Mysore.  2. Durgasimhana Panchatantra Sameekshe, Huilagola Varadaraja, 1976, Mysore.

 

 

 

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