ADIPURANAM

 

1. Name of the Text:   ಆದಿಪುರಾಣಂ

2. English Transliteration: aadipuraaNam 

3. Meaning in English: The story of Adinatha (Vrushabhanatha) the first Jaina teerthankara

4. Author: Pampa  

5. Period: 902 A.D. (born) 941-42 A.D. (Adipurana was written)

6. Place: His ancestors belonged to niDugonDe agrahara, gunDikara in the Guntur region of Andhrapradesh. Later the clan migrated to Dharwar and North canara regions. Pampa had brief soujorns in Banavasi in North Canara district of Karnataka. His Mother hailed from Annigeri town in Dharawar district.

7. Religion-Caste: Jaina. His ancestors were converted from Hinduism (Brahmanism.)

8. Patronage: Immadi Arikesari, (Vemulavada Chalukya dynasty) (935-55)

9. Titles: Adi Kavi, One among Ratnatraya,  

10. Genre :    a. Poetry Champu Epic

11. Prosodic Form: kanda padyas, vruttas, many indigenous Kannada meters

12. Manuscripts            : Palm leaf, Paper

13. Year of first Publication: 1900 A.D.

14. Editor                     :  S.G.Narasimhacar

15. Publisher, Place     :  Government Oriental Library, Mysore

16. Later Editions        :

      1. Pampa mahaakavi virachita aadipuraaNam - Ed. by K.G.Kundanagar and A.P.Chaugule. Published by        A.A.Chaugule, Belagaum, 1953.

2. aadipuraaNa sangraha (Abridged Version) By L.Gundappa , Mysore University, Mysore, 1954.

3. Pampana aadipuraaNa, Ed. by L.Basavaraju, Geetha Book House, Mysore, 1976

4.Pampakavi virachitam AadipuraaNam, (2nd Revised Edition S.G.N.’s edition, by T.V.Venkatachala Sastry, Directorate of Kannada and Culture, Bangaore,   1995

5. Pampana saraLa aadipuraaNa (Simple Narrative) By L.Basavaraju, Abhiruchi Prakashana, Mysore, 2008.

17. A Brief Introduction to the work: ‘Adipuranam’ is the first available literary work in Kannada. This encylopaediac epic delineating the life of Vrushabhanatha, (Purudeva) the first Jaina teerthankara ranks among the most celebrated works of the language. This is based on ‘Purvapurana’ and ‘Mahapurana’ written respectively by Jinasenacharya and Gunabhadracharya in Sanskrit. It does not deviate from the original texts. However it succeeds eminently by becoming poetry of enduring merit with universal significance transcending the boundaries of space and time.  

            Adipurana depicts the lives of Vrushabhanatha and his children Bharatha and Bahubali. The past lives of Adinatha (Bhavavali) are described in detail to trace the journey of a human soul towards perfection. The five auspicious events of his life (Pancha Kalyana) are narrated elaborately. The story continues even after the renunciation of Adinatha and the confrontation between Bharatha and Bahubali takes the centre stage. Adipurana comes to a fitting finale after the resolution of this strife between siblings caused by the noble nature of Bahubali.

            Adipurana is important because it asks some fundamental questions about human life, human society and human relations. The answers are brought home not by didactic devices but by escorting the reader in a journey of self realisation. The questions and their resolutions are of contemporary relevance because they address some enduring issues faced by human beings.

            Adipurana contains sixteen chapters (aashvaasa) and runs to 1630 poems composed in various meters. Many passages in prose supplement these poems. The poetic style is a combination of the classical and the native (Marga and Desi) as also Sanskrit and Kannada. He uses meters adopted from Sanskrit as also many meters that are native to Kannada language.

           Passages in Adipuarana such as Sriamathi-Vajrajangha, Lalithanga –Svayamprabha, Neelaanjaneya Naatya, Bharata-Bahubali Samvaada and the sacrifice of Bahubali are among the best literary creations in Kannada. Adipurana which was slightly marginalised relative to Pampa Bharata in the early decades of the twentieth century has now gained its rightful place as a work of enduring merit.

18. Important Commentaries and Criticism:

 

            a. Commentaries:    1. ‘aadipuraNa deepike’ by T.S.Shama Rao and Pa.Nagarajaiah, Chandragupta Grantha Male, Shravanabelagola, 1991.         

                                          2. ‘Pampa mahaakavi virachita aadipuraaNam’ (A rendering in prose) K.L.Narasimha Shastry Kannada Sahitya Parishattu, Bangalore, 1980.

                 

            b. Books:             1. Nadoja Pampa: Muliya Timmappaiah

                                       2. Pampa:         T.N.Srikantaiah

                                       3. Pampa-Ondu Adhyayana Ed. By G.S.Shivarudrappa, Kannada Adhyayana Kendra, Bangalore University,1974.    

                                       4. Pampa: ‘aaru upanyaasagaLu’ Karnataka University  

                                       5. Mahakavi Pampa  V.Seetaramaiah

                                   

           c. Articles:           1. List of articles provided in the 1995 edition by T.V. Venkatachala Sastry.

                                                                         

19. Translations from Adipuranam

1. Adipurana   Adarsha Pranaya       Narasimhamurthy K.

2. Adipurana   Bharata-Bahubali      Ramachandra Sharma B.C.

3. Adipurana   Indra’s Dance            K.Krishnmurthy and .K.Sukumar.

4. Adipurana   Srimathi-Vajrajangha C.K.Sukumar.

5. Adpurana    Neelanjane        T.R.S. Sharma (From Ancient Kannada Literature,Ed. By T.R.S.Sharma, Sahitya Academy New Delhi, 2000.)

 

20. Links:                          1. Jainism Articles and Essays

                                               

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