NEETHIMARGA PERMANADI INSCRIPTION

(ನೀತಿಮಾರ್ಗ ಪೆರ್ಮಾನಡಿ ಶಾಸನ)

            This is an interesting inscription installed during the regime of NItimarga Permanadi, a king belonging to the Ganga dynasty. It belongs to the last decade of the ninth century or the first decade of the tenth century. (Approximately 910 A.D.) It documents the bestowal of a village called ‘kiruvusuvUru’ by an official of the government, to two individuals named konguNi and PermmAnaDi gAmuNDa. This was a token of appreciation shown by the powers that be, to koNguNi and rAman. Raman, a son of PermmanaDi gAmuNDa loses his life while waging a battle to protect their cattle from the usurpers from the plains. The details are as follows:

           “This incident occurred when nItimArgga koNGuNivarmma was the king and ereyappa was ruling over the regions of ‘nugunADu’ and ‘navalenADu’. During this period, a confrontation takes place between the Gangas and the warriors from the plains. (BayalunADu) The baayalunADu people arrive on the scene and wage a battle with the people of ‘kottamangala’. They emerge victorious and try to take away the cattle belonging to the local people. At this juncture, a person called ‘konguNi’ raises an alarm. (This act is usually called ‘turu gOLu’) A fight ensues between the two contingents. The people from the plains are defeated and make good relinquishing the cattle stolen by them. However, a son of the village elder permmanaDi gAmuNda, called Raman dies in the battle. The gift of the village is made to KoNguNi who raised an alarm and the father of Raman who sacrifices his life to safeguard the interests of the community. This stone inscription documents the valour of these two persons and declares the grant of ‘kiruvusuvUru’. As usual a stern warning is given to those who destroy the inscription. He will be punished on par with a person who has killed a Brahmin woman, 1000 brown cows and 1000 Brahmins. He will be as guilty as a person who has committed the five cardinal sins. (Pancha MahApAtaka)

             This inscription is important for a couple of reasons. Firstly, it mentions clearly that the Gangas were the masters of ‘kovalALapura’. This is none other than Kolar town in the southern region of Karnataka. Actually, Kolar is deemed to be the capital city of the dynasty before the capital was shifted to ‘talakaDu’. This fact is corroborated by this inscription. Secondly, the inscription describes the cattle thieves as ‘people from the plains’. This could be studied further, from a geographical and historical perspective. Thirdly, the institution of appropriating the cattle wealth of the vanquished enemy and the alacrity with which the vanquished wage a counter attack is quite interesting. Finally the language of the inscription is relatively free from Sanskrit words and it leans more towards ‘haLagannaDa’ than ‘pUrvada haLagannaDa’. The text of the inscription and an English transliteration is provided here:

         

 

THE TEXT OF THE INSCRIPTION IN KANNADA:

 

ಸ್ವಸ್ತಿ ನೀತಿಮಾರ್ಗ್ಗ ಕೊಙ್ಗುಣಿವರ್ಮ್ಮ ಧರ್ಮ್ಮಮಹಾರಾಜಾಧಿರಾಜಂ ಕೊವಲಾಳಪಪುರವರೇಶ್ವರಂ ನನ್ದಿಗಿರಿನಾಥಂ ಶ್ರೀಮತ್ ಪೆರ್ಮ್ಮಾನಢಿಗಳ್ ಸ್ವಸ್ತಿ ಸಮಸ್ತಭುವನಪ್ರಣುತ ಗಙ್ಗಕುಲತಿಲಕ ರಾಜನ್ಯಚೂಡಾಮಣಿ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮೀನಿವಾಸವಿಜಯಶ್ರೀಕರಿಣೀಸ್ಥಂಭಾಯಮಾನ ದೋರ್ದಂಡ ಸಕಳ ವಿದ್ಯಾನಿಧಿ ಶ್ರೀಮದ್ ಎರಪ್ಪೆರಸರ್  ನುಗುನಾಡು ನವಲೆನಾಡುಮಾನ್ ಆಳುತ್ತುಮ್ ಇರೆ ಬಯಲನಾಡನೊಳ್ ವಿಗ್ರಹಮ್ ಆದ ದಿವಸಂ ಬಯಲ್ ನಾಡಂ ಬಂದು ಕೊತ್ತಮಙ್ಗಲಮನ್ ಇರಿದು ತುರುವಂ  ಕೊಣ್ಡು ಪೋಗುತ್ತ್ ಇರೆ ಪೆರ್ವ್ವಯಲ ಕೊಙ್ಗುಣಿ ಪುಯ್ಯಲ್ ವರಿದು ಬಯಲ್ ನಾಡಿನುಳ್ ಕಾದಿ ತುರುವನ್ ಇಕ್ಕಿಸಿ ಬಯಲ್ ನಾಡನನ್ ಒಡೆ ಕಾದಿ ಪೆರ್ಮ್ಮಾನಡಿಗಾಮುಣ್ಡನ ಮಗಂ ರಾಮನ್ ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಸತ್ತೊಡೆ ಪೆರ್ಮ್ಮಾನಡಿಯುಂ ಎರೆಯಪ್ಪೊನುಂ ಒಡನ್ ಇಳ್ದು ಪೆರ್ವ್ವಯಲ ಕುರುಮೆನ್ದುರ ಪೆರ್ಮ್ಮಾನಡಿ ಗಾಮುಣ್ಡಙ್ಗಂ ಕೊಙ್ಗುಣಿಗಂ ನಾಡನಾಳ್ಗಾಮುಣ್ಡಂ ಕಿರುವುಸುವೂರುಮಂ ಕಲ್ನಾಡು ಗೊಟ್ಟರ್ ಬೆಹ್ಮಣಿ ಕೊಂದಂಙ್ಗೆ ವಾರಣಾಸಿಯುಂ ಸಾಸಿರಕವಿಲೆಯುಂ ಸಾಸಿರ್ವ್ವರ್ ಪ್ಪಾರ್ವರುಂ ಸಾಸಿರಕೆರೆಯುವಾನ್ ಅಳಿದ ಪಞ್ಚಮಾಪಾತಕನ್ ಅಕ್ಕುಮ್ ಈಕಲ್ನಾಡನ್ ಅಳಿದೊಡೆ ಕೊಙ್ಗಾಳರ ಕೊಡುಗೂರರ ಬಞ್ಚಮ್ ಅತ್ತನ್ತೆ ಅರಿಗೆ

 

The Transliteration of the text in English:

 

svasti nItimArggam koNguNivarmma dharmmamhArAjAdhirAjam kovalALapuravarEshvara nandigirinAtham shrImat permmAnaDigaL svasti samastabhuvanapraNut gaNgakulatilaka rAjanyacUDAmaNi lakshmInivAsavijayashrIkariNIstambhAyamAna dOrdaNDa sakalavidyAnidhi shrImad erepperasar nugunADu navalenADuman ALuttum ire bayalnADanoL  vigraham Ada divasaM bayalnADam bandu kottamangalaman iridu turuvm koNDu pOgutt ire pervvayal koNguNi puyyal varidu bayalnADanuL kAdi turuvan ikkisi bayalnADanan oDe kAdi permmAnaDi gAmuNDana magam rAman alli sattoDe permmAnaDiyum ereyapponum oDan iLdu pervvayala kurumendura permmAnaDi gAmuNDaNgam koNguNigam nADanALgAmuNDum kiruvusuvUrumam kalnAdu goTTar behmaNi kondaNge vAraNAsiyum sAsira kavileyum sAsirvvar ppArvarum sAsirkereyuvAn aLida pancamApAtakan akkum IkalnADan aLidoDe koNgALara koDugUrara bancam attante arige.    

 

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